Brief Overview of Texas and Federal Whistleblower Laws
All employers must respectfully interact with employees who report alleged wrongdoings in the workplace. Often referred to as “whistleblowers,” these individuals are trying to correct illegal practices or behaviors they believe are harmful to many. Although some whistleblowers may have improper motives, you always ignore them at your own peril – especially since there are Texas and federal laws designed to protect them under certain circumstances.
The following information about whistleblower laws and related activities can help you better understand why an employer must obtain timely legal advice from a Houston business law attorney once any employee threatens to file this type of complaint.
The Texas Whistleblower Act
This statute is found in Sections 554.001 (and following) of the Texas Government Code. It only provides protection against employer retaliation for public employees – not private ones. The law expressly forbids public employers from suspending, terminating or otherwise imposing adverse personnel actions employees who report alleged legal violations by the employer or co-workers.
However, the complaining party – who must report the alleged wrongdoings to the appropriate law enforcement authority – must undergo (exhaust) all employer grievance or appeals processes before being allowed to sue the employer. Under the Texas statute, all whistleblower lawsuits must be filed within 90 days of the reported wrongdoing.
Damages may include obtaining a legal injunction against the employer – as well as receipt of all back pay owed if the employee was terminated (or demoted) in a retaliatory move. Successful whistleblowers (who meet all statutory requirements), are also entitled to receive full reinstatement, all fringe benefits owed, full seniority rights, actual damages, reasonable attorney fees, court costs and a set maximum of possible other compensatory damages.
Furthermore, a supervisor found to have violated the complaining employee’s rights under this Texas statute (Section 554.008) can be forced to pay up to a $15,000 civil fine.
While the burden of proof is on the whistleblower, the possible penalties can be formidable.
Federal laws often relied upon by various whistleblowers
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (passed shortly after all the illegal Enron activities). It mainly addresses the penalties available in the wake of fraudulent accounting practices.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.
OSHA violations. Many construction workers and other employees file “whistleblower” complaints based on these Occupational Safety and Health Administration statutes and regulations.
Various Department of Energy laws and statutes.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) laws and regulations.
Federal airline regulations.
The False Claims Act (as recently updated).
The Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act of 2009.
Hazardous waste regulations.
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act -- and other government statutes related to the provision and receipt of proper medical care.
While this list isn’t intended to be comprehensive, it provides a general overview of the types of statutes and regulations often referenced in many whistleblower complaints.
The following information reviews the most common types of illegal retaliation some employers take upon learning that a whistleblower complaint has been filed.
Forbidden, retaliatory actions taken by some employers
Job termination. Far too many employers look for “clever” ways to fire complaining employees once they learn a whistleblower complaint may be filed.
Demotion. An aggrieved employee may be called in and told that there have been long-standing complaints about his/her performance – requiring demotion to a lower position with considerably lower pay.
Thinly disguised harassment on the job.
Retaliatory discipline. This may include the placement of highly negative performance reviews in an employee’s file – making it much harder for the workers to receive any future promotions or favorable recommendations upon leaving the job.
Blacklisting. Some employers will “discreetly” contact their peers throughout the same industry, purposefully designating the specific, complaining employee in hopes of preventing that person from every landing another job in that same field.
Two high-profile whistleblower events help explain how such actions often unfold
One of the best ways to gain a stronger understanding of whistleblower activities is to read all you can about how former Enron employee Sherron Watkins reported her concerns about her employer. You may also want to learn more about all the late FBI agent W. Mark Felt (“Deep Throat”) did to expose President Richard Nixon’s illegal activities tied to the Watergate scandal.
As one Texas Monthly article puts it, the Enron scandal involved highly questionable financial practices that included the creation of financial entities to help Enron conceal the company’s growing debt from Wall Street, regulators and the general public. The book Power Failure provides an in-depth look at how all of Enron’s troubles began and how its illegal activities ruined the lives of so many.
Always make sure your company (or government office) provides all supervisory personnel with comprehensive training on the proper ways to respond once a whistleblower complaint has been filed (or is referenced by an employee). And remember that retaliatory acts must be avoided since they’re illegal and often very costly.
If you believe an employee is preparing to file a “whistleblower” complaint against you, please contact one of our Murray Lobb attorneys right away. We can explain your legal rights to you and help you take the proper steps to respond appropriately. Timely intervention can prevent critical misunderstandings and unnecessary litigation.