Crafting Effective Job Descriptions and Ads
Creating the type of job ads that attract large pools of highly qualified candidates takes careful thought and planning, like every other important business task. Besides providing an accurate job title and listing the main duties of a position, you need to let job applicants know if a specific job will fit in with their current lifestyle and priorities. Of course, you must also describe the minimum job qualifications and what you require in the way of prior experience and training. And all of this must be done in a manner that carefully avoids discriminating against anyone.
While drafting a proper job description may sound a bit intimidating, it can be done with relative ease if you’ll start by making a list of the key facts you need to communicate – while still making the job sound highly desirable. The job ad itself should be considerably shorter, in keeping with the online or print forum where you’ll be placing it.
Here’s a closer look at some of the broad topics and details you should always try to include.
After picking an appropriate job title -- add a clear list of essential job duties
Since all jobs tend to change a bit over time, it’s a good idea to visit briefly with the person who recently supervised the worker in the vacant position. This will let you know if your old job description needs to be updated or expanded. Next, make a list of the most common tasks the person hired will need to handle on a regular basis. Always start by listing the most time-consuming job assignments.
Also, be sure to indicate if the open job is an entry-level, mid-level or senior-level job. And you’ll need to note whether the position involves training or supervising other employees --
and what percentage of the employee’s time may be devoted to such tasks.
What type of academic background – and prior job experience – are you seeking?
To avoid potentially discriminatory language, it’s wise to indicate that you’re looking for someone with either a college degree “or equivalent experience.” Be sure to also specifically list any professional licenses or certificates that the person must have already earned. Likewise, you should clearly state whether it’s a job that may frequently require over-time, weekend shifts or travel.
When you fail to mention such factors, you’ll likely end up interviewing people who would never have applied had you provided that crucial information.
Make one list of all the required skills – and a separate list of all desired skills
If the work requires clerical skills, you might indicate a minimum typing speed and then list the specific types of software program skills required. If you need someone who is bilingual, make it very clear if you’ll expect complete fluency. Should you believe the job requires the ability to work well under pressure while meeting strict deadlines, it’s always wise to include that information, too.
Provide a brief description of the job culture, if possible
If you’re company is in start-up mode, be sure to share that since there are people who know that they usually do their best work in more stable or established work environments. Likewise, if you’ll be expecting this person to always work in-house – or remotely on one or more days – try to indicate that as well since some workers either strongly prefer that lifestyle or know that they do their best work in an office setting where they can readily consult with others on a regular basis.
Consider indicating the desired new hire’s personality type and work traits
If the person you want to hire needs highly developed interpersonal skills – perhaps because it’s a receptionist or job training position -- you may want to mention that as a desirable strength. Likewise, if the new employee will be conducting considerable research for your firm, it’s fine to say that you’re looking for someone with strong analytical skills and keen attention to detail.
Unique job demands or requirements
In order to avoid creating problems for yourself with the Americans with Disabilities Act and other legislation designed to protect specific job applicant and employee rights, it’s best to note unique requirements in your job ad so applicants will clearly know what’s required in advance.
Here are some job demands that should always be noted in your full job description provided to all selected applicants prior to job interviews.
Night shifts. Let applicants know if the new person may have to regularly tackle night shifts, in keeping with your company’s changing needs;
Ability to lift and/or carry small or large objects of a certain weight. People deserve to know in advance if they’ll need to lift heavy boxes or other objects on a regular basis. When possible, try to provide an accurate range of weights involved;
Use of personal vehicle. Be sure to note this and indicate that any job offer will be conditional, based on an applicant providing a recent copy of an acceptable driving record;
On-call work shifts. If this employee must be available on an on-call basis during certain days or weeks – on a regular schedule -- be sure to note this since it lets those with unique family obligations (or physical limitations) know whether the job is still a desirable one for them.
If your company does federal contracting work – keep EEOC requirements in mind
When a business does this type of work, it must always note in any job ad that all applicants will receive full consideration, regardless of their color, race, sex, national origin or religion. Many companies simply note this at the end of their ads by indicating that they’re an EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity) Employer. Even some companies who aren’t required to include an EEOC statement include one so that their applicants will be fully aware that they’re encountered an employer dedicated to fair hiring from a fully diverse group of applicants.
Additional comments about legally risky, outdated jargon & online “keywords”
Remember to use gender-neutral labels like “salesperson” as opposed to salesman and “server” in place of waiter. Likewise, “general repair person” is better than “handyman.” It’s also preferable to indicate you’re seeking to fill a “part-time position” than to indicate that you’re looking for a college student.
Finally, give thought to obtaining direct advice – or even job-writing templates – from one of the major online job boards like Monster.com, Indeed.com or Careerbuilder.com. They can also help you with selecting the most useful “keywords” that you’ll want to include in your ad.
Please feel free to contact one of our Murray Lobb attorneys whenever you need any advice about how to properly attract and interact with job applicants – or if you need help with any employee management issues that may arise. Our firm can also supply you with any employee contracts and other general business documents.